Photo by Marko Lukunic/PIXSELL
Croatian Online Lessons – Learn Akuzativ
Let’s start the journey with akuzativ cases. I’ll try to break it in small segments and make it as practical and straightforward as possible.
So, let’s start. 🙂
Akuzativ is one of the cases that’s used a lot in Croatian because it’s a case that’s used with direct objects. If you are asking yourselves what the hell is a direct object, well…I hear you there. So, let’s explain that. Let’s take a look at the following sentences.
If I ask you ‘What/who do you love?’ or ‘What/Who do you see?’, and you answer
‘I love chocolate / beer, my boyfriend, etc. / I see a boy / a car, etc.’, then you need to put this word (chocolate, beer, boy, car,etc.) in akuzativ case.
Let’s take a step further and explain the endings and take a look at some more examples.
- Masculine form akuzativ
prijatelj – prijatelji (friend – friends)
Now, if you put this in akuzativ, it will sound like this:
Imam prijatelja. (I have a friend.) – Imam prijatelje. (I have friends.) – I might have well used I see a friend. or I met a friend. In each case, word ‘friend’ will go in akuzativ case.
Now, different rule applies for singular form if the word that follows after the verb is inanimate.
mobitel – mobiteli (mobile phone – mobile phones)
Imam mobitel. (I have a mobile phone.) – Imam mobitele. (I have mobile phones.)
As you can see, the singular form doesn’t change.
- Female form akuzativ
prijateljica – prijateljice (female friend – female friends)
Female form doesn’t apply different rules on animate and inanimate nouns. Yay!
Zovem prijateljicu.(I’m calling a friend.) – Zovem prijateljice. (I’m calling friends.)
- Neuter form akuzativ
Again, neuter doesn’t apply different rules on animate and inanimate nouns.
pivo – piva (beer-beers)
dvorište – dvorišta (courtyard – courtyards)
Pijem pivo. (I’m drinking a beer.) – Pijem piva. (I’m drinking beers.)
Gledam dvorište. (I’m looking at the courtyard.) – Gledam dvorišta. (I’m looking at the courtyards.)
And again, a big YAY!, neuter form doesn’t change and keeps its base form.
A few extra things about akuzativ
If you’ve survived this far, here’s one more thing to keep an eye on. 🙂
Akuzativ is always used in sentences that express motion. So if you say for example:
‘I’m going to Cuba. / I’m flying to Croatia or Portugal.’
In this case Cuba, Italia and Portugal need to take akuzativ case.
Let’s see what happens:
Idem na Kubu. (Kuba – original form)
Idem u Italiju ili Portugal. (Italija becomes Italiju and Portugal doesn’t change its form because it’s a masculine inanimate noun.). Phew!
That’s it for now! Take your time. Take time to take all these rules in and apply what you’ve learnt on sentences that you can find below.
Helpful tips! 🙂
- If the noun ends in ‘a’ it’s female form.
- If it ends in a consonant, it’s masculine form.
- If it ends in ‘e’ or’o’ it’s neuter form.
Volim _________ (čokolada). – I love chocolate.
Vozim __________ (auto). – I’m driving a car.
Nikad ne jedem __________(kupus) – I never eat cabbage.
Putujem u _________ (Split). – I’m travelling to Split.
Volim svog __________ (muž /žena). – I love my husband/wife.
As in every language, there are some exceptions but if you master these rules you will have done a big chunk of work already.